Issues IN COMMON that transcend global boundaries AND human DIVIDES

STANDPOINT

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World Order

Genesis of Change

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Introduction (Part One)

 

Human History

Humans have explored every area of the planet, an immense process that witnessed a slow unfoldment across the globe. Between 60 to 90 thousand years ago, the first humans departed Africa and then spread across the earth for ensuing millennia. We continue to investigate and document the effects of their journey, employing objective analysis and unbiased documentation to gain insights from past errors.

Since the 15th century discourse has centered on Europe, considered it the source of civilization. Recent discoveries in archeology and anthropology reveal evidence that questions this notion. With the help of superior scientific methods, the goal is to attain a holistic understanding of human life on Earth, and fuel positive progress. World Order: Genesis of Change pivots to a much more positive and holistic view that find roots in human history that, over time, projects mankind on a collective experience, of necessity, towards unified efforts to achieve prosperous futures.

Europa

According to scholars, the continent of Europe derives its name from the Greek princess of Phoenicia, Europa. Derived from Greek mythology, in which Zeus, the king of the Olympian Gods, expressed his love for her. (1)

The first recorded usage of Europe as a geographic term is in Homer’s Hymn to Delian Apollo(1), a reference made to the western shore of the Aegean Sea.

Migrations

Europeans are the descendants of at least three major migrations of prehistoric people. First, a group of hunter-gatherers arrived in Europe 37,000 years ago. And around 9000 years ago, Anatolian farmers began their migration into Europe. Because they arrived with their families in tow, it is belived that in the begining they had only fleeting encounters with local hunter-gatherers. (2)

Yamnaya

Of special interest are the nomadic herders known as the Yamnaya who arrived in Europe 5000 to 4800 years ago. As an early Bronze Age culture, they came from the grasslands, having occupied the Eurasian steppe north of the Black Sea and the Caucasus mountains, areas now within modern-day Russia and Ukraine. The Yamnaya did interbred with local Europeans, those descendants of both the farmers and hunter-gatherers, and they and their descendants colonised wide swathes of Europe. Over time, their genetic influence will include at least half of central Europeans’ ancestry, a genetic legacy that persists to this day.

Archeological evidence reveal a noticeable shift in burial practices. It suggest the rise of a warrior class with an upsurge in lethal violence. This has lead some researchers to conclude that genocide must have occurred, and they wonder if history will reveal the Yamnaya as perpetrators of genocide. (3)

4500 years ago, unidentified humans erected the iconic sarsen stones at Stonehenge. Although the monument’s original purpose is under dispute, we now know that it became a memorial for a vanished people. Though those who built it remain unknown, speculation is that incomers, perhaps the Yamnaya, annihilated every inhabitant from the south coast of England to the north-east tip of Scotland. A picture is emerging of those who replaced them.

Genetics

The National Geographic magazine article written in August 2019 states: “The first Europeans were not who you will think: Genetic tests of ancient settlers’ remains show Europe is a melting pot of bloodlines from Africa, the Middle East, and today’s Russia”. This conclusion is based on an analysis of recent archaeological discoveries and DNA testing.

“The idea that there were once “pure” populations of ancestral Europeans, there since the days of woolly mammoths, has inspired ideologues since well before the Nazis. It has long nourished white racism, and in recent times has stoked fears about the impact of immigrants: fears that have threatened to rip apart the European Union and roiled politics in the United States.”

Mix

“All Europeans today are a mix. The genetic recipe for a typical European would be roughly equal parts Yamnaya and Anatolian farmer, with a much smaller dollop of African hunter-gatherer. But the average conceals large regional variations: more “eastern cowboy” genes in Scandinavia, more farmer ones in Spain and Italy, and significant chunks of hunter-gatherer DNA in the Baltics and eastern Europe.”

“To me, the new results from DNA are undermining the nationalist paradigm that we have always lived here and not mixed with other people,” Gothenburg’s Kristiansen says. “There’s no such thing as a Dane or a Swede or a German.” Instead, “we’re all Russians, all Africans.”

“In an era of debate over migration and borders, the science shows that Europe is a continent of immigrants and always has been.”

“The people who live in a place today are not the descendants of people who lived there long ago,” says Harvard University paleogeneticist David Reich. “There are no indigenous people—anyone who hearkens back to racial purity is confronted with the meaninglessness of the concept.”

World Order

Defining world order based on Eurocentric misguided assumptions of history is problematic. It denies humanity the right to recognize and appreciate contributions made by other peoples who had a defining role in the advance of civilization.

“Studying world orders established by nation-states holds value, yet a plethora of materials exist to explore international relations in historical periods preceding modern times and beyond Europe. There were world orders before Westphalia and the 17th century: ‘the East’ too has been home to world orders (and world orderers), and by looking at Asian world orders that came before European hegemony, we are able to learn much about their influence in the past and on future developments that took place within what would become know as “Europe” (1). No doubt, future research will reveal and account for others that now lie as ‘hidden secrets’.”

People, as for world order, do not see themselves as having a defining role in the international system. They choose to consider world problems using simplistic metaphorical terms such as globalization, the principle of oneness, or by acknowledging humanity as a one human family. These are helpful, but of themselves do not produce positive results. Though the elements are there, we know little about them, making it important for us to understand the interaction of ideas with complex social, political, and economic systems, and cultural identities that pertain to a diverse humanity, that together will forge meanings of ‘a one world family’. The next step is to plan ways and by what means to create and implement standards and procedures to bring this concept to reality.

Based on our understanding, ‘world order’ has a universalising ambition at its core and is expansive in its vision. This view of a World Order represents a departure from prior experiences, to mark foundations able to spearhead an inclusive humanity, while appreciating and drawing from the creativity inherent in its vast and complex diversity. We project that this influential process will unfold within extended time-horizons.

World order, in current parlance, depends not only on a stable balance of power but also on baseline agreement among nations on fundamental principles, norms, values, and rules of conduct.

Rather than analyze, agree, or contend with this approach, provided are detail elements of necessity, major points, and strategies that we consider necessary to expand the voice and representation of a world-wide community of diverse peoples. This portends profound implications for societies, agencies, national, and international institutions, those current and those yet to emerge, and establishes an appropriate genesis of change.

Background

Europe

The Middle Ages span 1,000 years, between 1400 and 1450. In the 10th century, the Christian church's moral authority suffered a severe blow because of corruption and materialistic greed. This resulted in massive upheavals in Europe that continued throughout the Middle Ages, and even beyond.

1820-1925 is the century in which Europe experienced the zenith of its power and influence that spanned the globe. It also was the period when it faced the devastation that unleashed massive changes on the continent. Then mistaken to be ‘civilized’, Europe descended into revolution, carnage, ruin, blight, wanton destruction, and the collapse of empires. In later years, we witness the outbreak of the First World War in 1914.  It ended in1918, but with unresolved issues. This provided an impetus for the Second World War that began in 1939, ending after much carnage suffering with the lamenting of Berlin in 1945.

Eurasia

A major influence on world affairs lies in Asia, with its territorial empires that expanded across the Eurasian landmass: The Ottoman Empire, Safavid Empire, Mughal Empire, Russian Empire, and Chinese Empire, as well as the Japanese Empire, Mongol Empire, Timurid Empire, Korean Empire, among others. Reflect on the methods employed by the ruling elites of these vast states to govern disparate regions, plans made for demographic and economic expansion, their ideologies, and various forms of justifications made to keep and maintain control. How did the imperial centres conceive of and relate to the peoples under their charge (barbarians, or racially inferior?) and what about those on their borders? How were they able to harness or defuse the explosive potential of religious fervour made possible because of the influx and activities of various religious missionaries that perhaps inspired a rebellious impulse among the populous? These questions relate to the period from 1300 until 1915, in which the demise of the Ottoman Empire occurred.

South Asia

As long as 75,000 years ago, or with earlier hominids, including Homo Erectus, human activity (Homo sapiens) has provided evidence of the history of South Asia. The earliest prehistoric culture of this region has roots in the Mesolithic sites, evidenced by the rock paintings of Bhimbetka rock shelters that date to a period of 30,000 BCE or older.

Today, the South Asia population stands at 2,043,337,900 people plus. Countries include India, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Malaysia, British Indian Ocean Territory , Pakistan, Nepal, Afghanistan, Cambodia, Maldives, Sri Lanka, and Myanmar (Burma) Laos (country count incomplete). The region has the world’s largest populations of Hindus, Muslims, Sikhs, Jains, and Zoroastrians; accounts for 90.47% of Hindus, 95.5% of Sikhs, and 31% of Muslims worldwide, as well as 35 million Christians and 25 million Buddhists (not a complete rending of known groups in the region).

South Asia’s influence on world order (historic and current) is enormous. Researchers must investigate and explore South Asia's past and projected influence on world order with an open mind, abiding objectivity, and thorough documentation.

West Africa

Consider Atlantic Africa, the area which witnessed by far one of the greatest of holocausts, the mass expulsions and forced migration of African peoples from their homelands for subsequent enslavement in the New World. No less than 12.5 million souls were affected, of whom 10.7 million survived the dreaded Middle Passage and arrived in North America, the Caribbean, and South America.

East Africa

For the East African Slave Trade, historians estimate traders transported 12 million enslaved Africans to the Middle East(*3), North Africa, and India over the twelve centuries, from 750 to the 20th century. It includes the Persian Gulf, which today is the area with national entities of Iran, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Oman, and the United Arab Emirates. The numbers of enslaved Africans sold to these areas grew in the late 18th century, and continue well into the 20th century, and beyond.

Arabia

This peninsular of south-western Asia, largely desert, lies between the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf, and bounded on the north by Jordan and Iraq. The original homeland of the Arabs, it became the historic centre of Islam. It now comprises the states of Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Oman, Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates.

Little acknowledged in the western, is the important roles performed by scholars living in Baghdad during the Abbasid Caliphate (750–1258). They contributed to preserving Greek, its language, and philosophy, to include existing knowledge about astronomy, medicine, and insights into other disciplines. Their learning and discoveries contributed to European advancement.

Another major center for Islamic learning was in Timbuktu, a hub of Islamic scholarship during the reign of African empires. It hosted a university with 25,000 students and other madrasas that functioned as fountains of knowledge. From the 13th to 16th centuries, it played a part in disseminating Islam throughout various areas of Africa.

Australia

Six years after the First British Fleet arrived in Sydney Cove and declared Australia a British colony, the first recorded indigenous genocide occurred on 1st September 1794. Reliable sources estimate that, since then, perpetrators took the lives of over 10,000 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander in over 400 massacres, and documented at least 26 instances of mass poisonings.

North America

From the time Europeans arrived on American shores, the frontier—the edge territory between white man’s civilization and the untamed natural world—became a shared space of vast, clashing differences. The United States authorized the slaughter of native Americans in the name of civilization, resulting in over 1,500 wars, attacks, and raids on Indian populations, surpassing any country in the world in terms of the mistreatment of its own indigenous people. By the close of the European-Indian Wars in the late 19th century, fewer than 238,000 indigenous people remained, a sharp decline from the estimated 5 million to 15 million living in North America when Columbus arrived in 1492.

South America

The genocide of indigenous peoples in Brazil began with the Portuguese colonization of the Americas, when Pedro Álvares Cabral made landfall in what is now the country of Brazil in 1500. This started the process that led to the depopulation of the indigenous peoples in Brazil, because of disease and violent treatment by Portuguese settlers, and their gradual replacement with colonists from Europe and enslaved peoples from Africa. Portuguese settlers destroyed over eighty indigenous tribes between 1900 and 1957, leading to an overall decline in the indigenous population by over 80%, from one million to two hundred thousand.

Research

Presented above is a starting point for researchers to correct distortions and anomalies of history based within Eurocentric perspectives, to offset falsifications and misguided assumption of white race supremacy that seek to define civilization in its view. Challenging here-to-fore discourse with penetrating analysis and an objective point-of-view will provide an accurate accounting of historic facts and events, their influence on world order, and the aftermath. This will become bedrock from which to evidence and attend an emerging New World Order, based on genesis of change.

 

⎯To be continued (Part Two).

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Links

The Asian World Order.

World Order: Dimensions of Engagement

Yale University Open Courses

HIST 210: The Early Middle Ages, 284–1000.  The major themes of the course include the crisis of the Roman Empire, the rise of Christianity, the threats to barbarian invasions, and the continuity of the Byzantine Empire. In subsequent lectures within this series, Professor Freedman addresses India and Persia, their impact, along with Islam, on civilisation and in world history. These courses extend understanding of history, capselized above, with details that sets the stage for acquiring insights into where we stand today in human history.   Open Yale Courses are free.  So avail yourself of this learning opportunity as part of our 'World Order, Genesis of Change (Part One)'. Of interest for Arabia (above) is Lecture 14 - Mohammed and the Arab Conquests. There are a series of lectures, to include a downloadable reading list in PDF format. To access, follow the link below:

Yale University - Yale Open Courses

Reference

(1) How Europe Got Its Name: The Greek Myth of Europa. ⎯ GreekReporter, 23 Oct 2003. ByTasos Kokkinidis.

(2) Thousands of horsemen may have swept into Bronze Age Europe, transforming the local population: Europeans may be descendants of a massive migration of men from the Russian steppe. ⎯ Science, 21 Feb 2017. By Ann Gibbons.

(3) Kristian Kristiansen, University of Gothenburg, Sweden

Endnotes

The British India Office coined the term ‘Middle East’ in the 1850s for the region that also included Mesopotamia. The Eurocentric term ‘Middle East’ is discerning because of its inherent descriptive inequities. Since 7th century AD, Islamic sources referred to the northern section of Mesopotamia as ‘al-Jazira’ (the island), and the lower or southern section as know as ‘Sawād’ (arable land).

The Persian Gulf is today the area that includes Iran, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Oman and the United Arab Emirates. The numbers of enslaved Africans sold to these areas increased in the late 18th century.

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